Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Short Answer Essay Box

  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratry system?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 2. 

    The conducting zone's role is to

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Conduct air into the lungs

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 3. 

    The nose connects with the pharynx through the

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 5. 

    The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 6. 

    This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 7. 

    During swallowing, which structures rises?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 8. 

    These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 9. 

    Pitch is controlled by

    • A. 

      Vibration of the vocal chords

    • B. 

      Tension of the vocal chords

    • C. 

      Layers of cartilage in the vocal chords

    • D. 

      Arrangement of the vocal chords

    • E. 

  • 10. 

    This is located anterior to the oesophagus and carries air to the bronchi.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 11. 

    This is the primary gas exchange site.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 12. 

    Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?

    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium with keratin

    • B. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 13. 

    Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?

    • A. 

      Stratified squamous epithelium with keratin

    • B. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

      Cilated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells

    • D. 

      Transitional epithelium with cilia

    • E. 

      Columnar connective tissue with goblet cells

  • 14. 

    The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 15. 

    Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?

    • A. 

      Strafied squamous epithelium

    • B. 

      Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

    • C. 

      Simple squamous epithelium

    • D. 

    • E. 

      Columnar connective tissue with goblet cells

  • 16. 

    These are cells of the alveoli that produces surfactant.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 17. 

    This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.

    • A. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide into blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

    • D. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

  • 18. 

    This is direction of diffusion of gasese at the alveoli of the lungs.

    • A. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide into blood

    • B. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide into blood

    • C. 

      Oxygen into blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

    • D. 

      Oxygen out of blood, carbon dioxide out of blood

  • 19. 

    Exhalation begins when

    • A. 

      Inspiratory muscles relax

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Blood circulation is the lowest

    • D. 

      Inspiratory muscles relax and diaphragm contracts

    • E. 

      Inspiratory muscles relax, diagphragm contracts and blood circulation is the lowest

  • 20. 

    This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 21. 

    The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo respiratory exchange are known as the

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Expiratory reserve volume

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 22. 

    This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume.

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Functional residual capacity

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 23. 

    Which of the following is NOT a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on?

    • A. 

      Partial pressure difference of the gases

    • B. 

      Surface area for gas exchange

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Molecular weight and solubility of the gases

    • E. 

      Force of contraction of diaphragm

  • 24. 

    Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Dissolved in plasma as a gas

    • D. 

      Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions

    • E. 

  • 25. 

    When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhaemoglobin ______________ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ___________.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

      Does not change, does not change

  • 26. 

    Which is a factor that does NOT affect haemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

    • A. 

    • B. 

      Partial pressure of the oxygen

    • C. 

      Amount of oxygen available

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 27. 

    Where are the nasal conchae?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 28. 

    This portion of the pharynx has five openings in its wall.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 29. 

    Which tonsils are found in the oropharynx?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 30. 

    What is also referred to as the Adam's Apple?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 31. 

    Where is the larynx?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 32. 

    This is a ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 33. 

    Where is the uvulva?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 34. 

    Where are the palatine tonsils?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 35. 

    Where is the soft palate?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 36. 

    Where is the epiglottis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 37. 

    Where are the olfactory receptors found?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 38. 

    Where is the middle nasal concha?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 39. 

    Where is the inferior nasal concha?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 40. 

    What is E pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 41. 

    What is line D pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 42. 

    Where is the cricoid cartilage?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 43. 

    Where is the tracheal cartilage?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 44. 

    What is line A pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 45. 

    Where is the structure that regulates air flow to the alveolus?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 46. 

    What is line J pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 47. 

    Where is the right bronchiole?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 48. 

    What lines are pointing to tertiary bronchi?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 49. 

    What is B pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 50. 

    In this portion of the lungs, the epithelial lining is simple squamous.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 51. 

    This is the primary gas exchange structure.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 52. 

    What is C pointing to?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 53. 

    Where is the terminal bronchiole?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 54. 

    This provides disease resistance within the lungs.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 55. 

    Which cells are the main sites of gas exchange?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 56. 

    Which cell secretes surfactant?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 3 19) The C-shaped rings that reinforce the trachea are constructed of __________ cartilage. Answer: hyaline Diff: 2 Page Ref: 444 20) The flap of elastic cartilage that protects the opening of the larynx is called the __________. Answer: epiglottis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 21) A procedure in which air within the lungs is used to forcibly expel an obstructing piece of food to avoid suffocation is called the __________. Answer: Heimlich maneuver Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444 22) The central area between the two lungs that houses the heart, great blood vessels, bronchi, and esophagus is called the __________. Answer: mediastinum Diff: 2 Page Ref: 445 23) The smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are called __________. Answer: bronchioles Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 24) "Dust cells" that wander in and out of the alveoli, picking up bacteria, carbon particles, and other debris, are actually __________. Answer: macrophages Diff: 3 Page Ref: 447 25) The air sacs of the lungs are called __________. Answer: alveoli Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447 26) The process of moving air into and out of the lungs is commonly called breathing or __________.

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