Andrea Gritti Bibliography

Inscription

upper left, in black paint: ANDREAS GRITI DOGE / DI VENETIA; center right, in gold leaf: TITIANVS E. F. (Titian, Knight, made it); reverse, on paper: Bought for His Majesty in Italy, 1626.[1]

Inscription Notes

[1] The reference is to Charles I of England; as argued by Fern Rusk Shapley, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV-XVI Century, London, 1968: 179-180 (and Fern Rusk Shapley, Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, 1979: 1:488-490). The paper is written in a hand that is apparently of the 17th century, but not that of the cataloger of the royal collection, Abraham van der Doort. Formerly, as reported by Karl Wilczek, Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemäldegalerie in Wien, Vienna, 1936: 88-89, the royal stamp of a CR surmounted by a crown was also visible on the back of the canvas; but after the transfer of the canvas to a new strether in 1955, the stamp has been concealed.

Provenance

Purchased 1626 in Italy for Charles I, king of England [1600-1649], Whitehall Palace, London;[1] (Charles I [Commonwealth] sale, Somerset House, London, 23 October 1651); purchased by the Syndicate of the Twelfth Dividend, organized by John Jackson, lawyer.[2] Wenzel Anton, Prince von Kaunitz-Rietburg [d. 1794]; by inheritance to Wenzel Alois, Prinz Kaunitz; (Kaunitz sale, Vienna, 13 March 1820, no. 178);[3] purchased by Johann Rudolf, Count Czernin von Chudenitz [1757-1845], Vienna;[4] by inheritance through the Czernin von Chudenitz family, Vienna, to Count Eugen Czernin von Chudenitz [1892-1955], Vienna, as of 1933, until at least 1948; on commission January 1954 from Willy Haene, lawyer for Czernin, with (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); sold 1954 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[5] gift 1961 to NGA.

Exhibition History
1935
Mostra di Tiziano, Ca' Pesaro, Venice, 1935, no. 31.
1947
Europäische Barockmalerei aus Wiener Privatgalerien, Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1937-1948, no. 47.
1990
Tiziano [NGA title: Titian: Prince of Painters], Palazzo Ducale, Venice; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990-1991, no. 37, repro.
Bibliography
1829
Hume, Abraham. Notices of the Life and Works of Titian. London, 1829: 81.
1866
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmäler in Wien. 2 vols. Vienna, 1866: 1:303.
1871
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy. 2 vols. London, 1871: 2:289-290.
1877
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. Titian, His Life and Times. 2 vols. London, 1877: 1:301.
1878
Vasari, Giorgio. Le vite dei più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori. Edited by Gaetano Milanesi. 9 vols. Florence, 1878-1885: 7(1881):438 n.
1894
Berenson, Bernard. The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. New York and London, 1894: 145.
1897
Knackfuss, Hermann. Tizian. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1897: 41, 59.
1900
Gronau, Georg. Tizian. Berlin, 1900: 76.
1901
Thode, Henry. Tintoretto. Bielefeld, 1901: 118.
1904
Fischel, Oskar. Tizian: Des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart [u.a.], 1904: xviii, 42.
1904
Gronau, Georg. Titian. London, 1904: 73-74, 278.
1905
Miles, Henry. The Later Work of Titian. London, 1905: xvii.
1905
Reinach, Salomon. Répertoire de peintures du moyen âge et de la Renaissance (1280-1580). 6 vols. Paris, 1905-1923: 5(1922):451.
1906
The Masterpieces of Titian. London, 1906: 13, 68.
1908
Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemälde-Galerie in Wien. Vienna, 1908: 6 no. 38.
1910
Ricketts, Charles. Titian. London, 1910: 176.
1911
Preyer, David. The Art of the Vienna Galleries. Boston, 1911: 267.
1912
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy. Edited by Tancred Borenius. 3 vols. London, 1912: 3:180-181.
1918
Basch, Victor. Titien. Paris, 1918: 162.
1921
Knackfuss, Hermann. Tizian. 8th ed. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1921: 41, 61.
1922
Waldmann, Emil. Tizian. Berlin, 1922: 103-105.
1923
Faure, Élie. Renaissance Art. New York, 1923: 198.
1925
Lorenzetti, Giulio. “Un nuovo dipinto di Jacopo Tintoretto: il ritratto del Doge Pietro Loredan.” Dedalo 6 (1925): 316.
1930
Hadeln, Detlev von. “Dogenbildnisse von Tizian.” Pantheon 6 (1930): 490, 494.
1932
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: A List of the Principal Artists and their Works with an Index of Places. Oxford, 1932: 576.
1933
Suida, Wilhelm. Tizian. Zürich and Leipzig, 1933: 81, 157.
1935
Dussler, Luitpold. “Tizian-Ausstellung in Venedig.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 4 (1935): 239.
1935
Mostra di Tiziano. Exh. cat. Palazzo Pesaro Papafava, Venice, 1935: 81.
1935
Norris, Christopher. “Titian: Notes on the Venice Exhibition.” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 67 (August 1935): 127-128.
1936
Berenson, Bernard. Pitture italiane del rinascimento: catalogo dei principali artisti e delle loro opere con un indice dei luoghi. Translated by Emilio Cecchi. Milan, 1936: 496.
1936
Tietze, Hans. Tizian: Leben und Werk. 2 vols. Vienna, 1936: 1:133, 167-8, 303, 315.
1936
Wilczek, Karl. Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemäldegalerie in Wien. Vienna, 1936: 88-89.
1937
Mayer, August L. “A propos d’un nouveau livre sur le Titien.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 18 (December 1937): 308.
1937
Tietze, Hans. Titian: Paintings and Drawings. Vienna, 1937: 347.
1939
Da Mosto, Andrea. I Dogi di Venezia. Venice, 1939: 302.
1941
Stepanow, Giovanni. Tizian. Leipzig, 1941: xviii, xlvi.
1946
Riggs, Arthur Stanley. Titian the Magnificent and the Venice of His Day. New York, 1946: 160, 209.
1946
Tietze-Conrat, Erica. “Titian’s Workshop in His Late Years.” The Art Bulletin 28 (1946): 81 n. 44.
1947
Europäische Barockmalerei aus Wiener Privatgalerien. Exh. cat. Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1947: 14 no. 47.
1950
Tietze, Hans. Titian. The Paintings and Drawings. London, 1950: 399.
1953
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Tiziano. Lezioni di storia dell’arte. 2 vols. Bologna, 1953-1954: 1:165, 203-205.
1955
Dell’Acqua, Gian Alberto. Tiziano. Milan, 1955: 120.
1956
Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 178-181, no. 71, repro.
1956
Walker, John. "The Nation's Newest Old Masters." The National Geographic Magazine 110, no. 5 (November 1956): 622, 624, color repro. 639.
1957
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Venetian School. 2 vols. London, 1957: 1:189.
1957
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 73.
1959
Morassi, Antonio. “Titian.” In Encyclopedia of World Art. 17+ vols. London, 1959+,
14(1967): col. 143.
1959
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 192, repro.
1960
The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 26.
1960
Valcanover, Francesco. Tutta la pittura di Tiziano. 2 vols. Milan, 1960: 1:72.
1961
Walker, John, Guy Emerson, and Charles Seymour. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961:, 120-121, repro. pl. 114, 116
1962
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 34, color repro.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 146, repro.
1964
Morassi, Antonio. Titian. Greenwich, CT, 1964: 39.
1965
Nuttall, W. L. F. “King Charles I’s Pictures and the Commonwealth Sale.” Apollo 82, no. 44 (1965): 308.
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 130
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:174, color repro.
1968
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 116, repro.
1968
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV-XVI Century. London, 1968: 179-180, fig. 424-425.
1969
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Tiziano. 2 vols. Florence, 1969: 1:103-104.
1969
Valcanover, Francesco. L’opera completa di Tiziano. Milan, 1969: 112.
1969
Wethey, Harold. The Paintings of Titian. 3 vols. London, 1969-1975: 2(1971):23-24, 108-109; 3(1975): 160, 248.
1972
Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972: 203, 514, 647.
1973
Lane, Frederic. Venice: A Maritime Republic. Baltimore, 1973: 207-208.
1973
Zeri, Federico, and Elizabeth Gardner. Italian Paitnings. A Catalogue of the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Venetian School. New York, 1973: 76-77.
1974
Rossi, Paola. Jacopo Tintoretto: I ritratti. Venice, 1974: 48.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 346, repro.
1976
Gallego, Julian. “El retrato en Tiziano.” Goya 135 (1976): 170-171.
1977
Chastel, André. “Titien.” In Tiziano nel Quarto Centenario della sua Morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 21.
1977
Muraro, Michelangelo. “Tiziano pittore ufficiale della Serenissima.” In Tiziano nel quarto centenario della sua morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 98.
1977
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Profilo di Tiziano. Florence, 1977: 39.
1977
Perocco, Guido. “Tiziano e alcuni committenti a Venezia.” In Tiziano nel quarto centenario della sua morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 70-71.
1977
Perocco, Guido. “Tiziano e il mondo politico e sociale di Venezia.” In Tiziano Vecellio. Convegno indetto nel IV centenario dell’artista (1976). Rome, 1977: 51-52.
1978
Finlay, Robert. “Politics and the Family in Renaissance Venice: the Election of Doge Andrea Gritti.” Studi Veneziani N.S. 2 (1978): 106.
1979
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1979: I:488-490, II:pl. 346, 346A,B
1979
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 39, pl. 23.
1980
Fasolo, Ugo. Titian. Florence, 1980: 41-42.
1980
Gilbert, Creighton. “Some Findings on Early Works of Titian.” The Art Bulletin 62 (1980): 75.
1980
Meller, Peter. “Il lessico ritrattistico di Tiziano.” In Tiziano e Venezia: Convegno internazionale di studi (1976). Vicenza, 1980: 328-329.
1981
Hale, J. R. “Andrea Gritti.” In A Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian
Renaissance
. Edited by J. R. Hale. New York, 1981: 164.
1982
Alsop, Joseph. The Rare Art Traditions: The History of Art Collecting and Its Linked Phenomena Wherever These Have Appeared. Bollingen series 35, no. 27. New York, 1982: 460-461.
1983
Shearman, John. The Early Italian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen. Cambridge, 1983: 263.
1984
Puppi, Lionello. “Iconografia di Andrea Gritti.” In “Renovatio Urbis”: Venezia nell’età di Andrea Gritti, 1523-1538. Edited by Manfredo Tafuri. Rome, 1984: 218-220.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 204, no. 246, color repro.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 398, repro.
1987
Puppi, Lionello. “La consegna dell’anello al Doge. Anatomia di un dipinto.” In Paris Bordon e il suo tempo: Atti del convegno internazionale di studi (1985). Treviso, 1987: 102-103.
1989
Haskell, Francis. “Charles I’s Collection of Pictures.” In The Late King’s Goods. Collections, Possessions and Patronage of Charles I in the Light of the Commonwealth Sale Inventories. Edited by Arthur MacGregor. London and Oxford, 1989: 204.
1990
Titian, Prince of Painters. Exh. cat. Palazzo Ducale, Venice; National Gallery of Art, Washington. Venice, 1990: 252-254.
1992
Ost, Hans. Tizian-Studien. Cologne, 1992: 88-96.
1993
Echols, Robert. "Titian's Venetian Soffitti: Sources and Transformations." Studies in the History of Art 45 (1993):20.
1993
Weber, Annette. Venezianische Dogenporträts des 16. Jahrhunderts. Sigmaringen, 1993: 62-67.
1996
Burke, Peter. “Il ritratto veneziano del Cinquecento”. In Pittura nel Veneto. Il Cinquecento. Edited by Mauro Lucco. 3 vols. Milan, 1996-1999: 3(1999):1103.
1996
Howard, Deborah. “Andrea Gritti.” In The Dictionary of Art. Edited by Jane Turner. 34 vols. New York and London, 1996: 13:678.
1997
Puppi, Lionello. “Dal mito allo stato. Nota sull’illustrazione pittorica di una tarda integrazione dell’agiografia marciana.” In Venezia da Stato a Mito. Exh. cat. Fondazione Giorgio Cini. Venice, 1997: 68.
1998
Kaminsky, Marion. Titian. Cologne, 1998: 90.
1998
Martin, Thomas. Alessandro Vittoria and the Portrait Bust in Renaissance Venice. Oxford, 1998: 79.
1999
Cole, Bruce. Titian and Venetian Painting, 1450-1590. Boulder, 1999: 133-136.
1999
Valcanover, Francesco. Tiziano: I suoi pennelli sempre partorirono espressioni di vita. Florence, 1999: 43, 267.
2000
Finlay, Robert. “Fabius Maximus in Venice: Doge Andrea Gritti, the War of Cambrai, and the Rise of Habsburg Hegemony, 1509-1530.” Renaissance Quarterly 53 (2000): 988.
2000
Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing Through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies. Materials and Meaning in the Fine Arts 1. New Haven, 2000: 121-122, 262, fig. 112, color fig. 113.
2001
Pedrocco, Filippo. Titian: The Complete Paintings. New York, 2001: 50, 189.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 104-105, no. 79, color repro.
2004
Humfrey, Peter, et al. The Age of Titian: Venetian Renaissance Art from Scottish Collections. Edited by Aidan Weston-Lewis. Exh. cat. Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, 2004: 128-129.
2007
Ferino-Pagden, Sylvia, ed. Der späte Tizian und die Sinnlichkeit der Malerei. Exh. cat. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna; Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice. Vienna, 2007: no. I.7, 179-182, 182-183 (not in the exhibition).
2007
Humfrey, Peter. Titian: The Complete Paintings. Ghent and New York, 2007: 210.
2008
Penny, Nicholas. National Gallery Catalogues: The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Vol. 2: Venice 1540-1600. London, 2008: 211.
2010
Cranston, Jodi. The Muddied Mirror: Materiality and Figuration in Titian’s Later Paintings. University Park, PA, 2010: 93-95.
2010
Overdick, Michael. Tizian: Die späten Porträts 1545-1568. Düsseldorf, 2010: 5-10, 59-61.
2011
Biferali, Frabrizio. Tiziano: Il genio e il potere. Rome, 2011: 86-87.
2012
Gentili, Augusto. Tiziano. Milan, 2012: 311, 313.
2013
Dunkerton, Jill, Jennifer Fletcher, and Paul Joannides. “A Portrait of Girolamo
Fracastoro by Titian in the National Gallery.” The Burlington Magazine 155 (2013): 15 n. 74.
2013
Nichols, Tom. Titian and the End of the Venetian Renaissance. London, 2013: 112-115.

Andrea Gritti (1455 – December 1538) was the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538, following a distinguished diplomatic and military career.

Gritti was born in Bardolino, near Verona. He spent much of his early life in Constantinople (Istanbul) as a grain merchant, looking after Venetian interests. In the late 1490s he was using his commercial correspondence for sending encoded information to Venice regarding the movements of the Turkish navy.[2] In 1499, he was imprisoned on charges of espionage, but escaped execution due to his friendship with the vizier, and was released several years later.

In the early sixteenth century, Venice lost nearly all its territory on the Italian mainland, and Gritti played an important part in the events connected with this loss and the eventual return to the status quo ante. In 1509, after the Venetian defeat at the Battle of Agnadello, Gritti was appointed as proveditor to the Venetian army in Treviso; ordered by the Council of Ten to support revolts against the invaders, he successfully engineered the return of Padua to Venetian hands, and its subsequent defence against the Emperor. In 1510, following the death of Niccolò di Pitigliano, Gritti took command of Venice's army, but was forced to withdraw to Venice by French advances. He continued as proveditor through end of the League of Cambrai and the subsequent war of the Holy League. In 1512, he led the negotiations with Francis I that resulted in Venice leaving the League and allying with France.

Elected Doge in 1523, Gritti concluded a treaty with Charles V, ending Venice's active involvement in the Italian Wars. He attempted to maintain the neutrality of the Republic in the face of the continued struggle between Charles and Francis, urging both to turn their attention to the advances of the Ottoman Empire in Hungary. However, he could not prevent Suleiman I from attackingCorfu in 1537, drawing Venice into a new war with the Ottomans. His dogaressa was Benedetta Vendramin.[3]

Gritti died in December 1538.

Popular culture[edit]

  • Andrea Gritti sometimes appears in the loading screen of the computer strategy game, Europa Universalis IV.

References[edit]

  • Finlay, Robert, "Fabius Maximus in Venice: Doge Andrea Gritti, the War of Cambrai, and the Rise of Habsburg Hegemony, 1509-1530," Renaissance Quarterly 53:988–1031, Winter 2000.
  • Norwich, John Julius (1989). A History of Venice. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72197-5.

External links[edit]

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