Andrea Gritti Bibliography


upper left, in black paint: ANDREAS GRITI DOGE / DI VENETIA; center right, in gold leaf: TITIANVS E. F. (Titian, Knight, made it); reverse, on paper: Bought for His Majesty in Italy, 1626.[1]

Inscription Notes

[1] The reference is to Charles I of England; as argued by Fern Rusk Shapley, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV-XVI Century, London, 1968: 179-180 (and Fern Rusk Shapley, Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, 1979: 1:488-490). The paper is written in a hand that is apparently of the 17th century, but not that of the cataloger of the royal collection, Abraham van der Doort. Formerly, as reported by Karl Wilczek, Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemäldegalerie in Wien, Vienna, 1936: 88-89, the royal stamp of a CR surmounted by a crown was also visible on the back of the canvas; but after the transfer of the canvas to a new strether in 1955, the stamp has been concealed.


Purchased 1626 in Italy for Charles I, king of England [1600-1649], Whitehall Palace, London;[1] (Charles I [Commonwealth] sale, Somerset House, London, 23 October 1651); purchased by the Syndicate of the Twelfth Dividend, organized by John Jackson, lawyer.[2] Wenzel Anton, Prince von Kaunitz-Rietburg [d. 1794]; by inheritance to Wenzel Alois, Prinz Kaunitz; (Kaunitz sale, Vienna, 13 March 1820, no. 178);[3] purchased by Johann Rudolf, Count Czernin von Chudenitz [1757-1845], Vienna;[4] by inheritance through the Czernin von Chudenitz family, Vienna, to Count Eugen Czernin von Chudenitz [1892-1955], Vienna, as of 1933, until at least 1948; on commission January 1954 from Willy Haene, lawyer for Czernin, with (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); sold 1954 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[5] gift 1961 to NGA.

Exhibition History
Mostra di Tiziano, Ca' Pesaro, Venice, 1935, no. 31.
Europäische Barockmalerei aus Wiener Privatgalerien, Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1937-1948, no. 47.
Tiziano [NGA title: Titian: Prince of Painters], Palazzo Ducale, Venice; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1990-1991, no. 37, repro.
Hume, Abraham. Notices of the Life and Works of Titian. London, 1829: 81.
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmäler in Wien. 2 vols. Vienna, 1866: 1:303.
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy. 2 vols. London, 1871: 2:289-290.
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. Titian, His Life and Times. 2 vols. London, 1877: 1:301.
Vasari, Giorgio. Le vite dei più eccellenti pittori, scultori ed architettori. Edited by Gaetano Milanesi. 9 vols. Florence, 1878-1885: 7(1881):438 n.
Berenson, Bernard. The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. New York and London, 1894: 145.
Knackfuss, Hermann. Tizian. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1897: 41, 59.
Gronau, Georg. Tizian. Berlin, 1900: 76.
Thode, Henry. Tintoretto. Bielefeld, 1901: 118.
Fischel, Oskar. Tizian: Des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart [u.a.], 1904: xviii, 42.
Gronau, Georg. Titian. London, 1904: 73-74, 278.
Miles, Henry. The Later Work of Titian. London, 1905: xvii.
Reinach, Salomon. Répertoire de peintures du moyen âge et de la Renaissance (1280-1580). 6 vols. Paris, 1905-1923: 5(1922):451.
The Masterpieces of Titian. London, 1906: 13, 68.
Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemälde-Galerie in Wien. Vienna, 1908: 6 no. 38.
Ricketts, Charles. Titian. London, 1910: 176.
Preyer, David. The Art of the Vienna Galleries. Boston, 1911: 267.
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy. Edited by Tancred Borenius. 3 vols. London, 1912: 3:180-181.
Basch, Victor. Titien. Paris, 1918: 162.
Knackfuss, Hermann. Tizian. 8th ed. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1921: 41, 61.
Waldmann, Emil. Tizian. Berlin, 1922: 103-105.
Faure, Élie. Renaissance Art. New York, 1923: 198.
Lorenzetti, Giulio. “Un nuovo dipinto di Jacopo Tintoretto: il ritratto del Doge Pietro Loredan.” Dedalo 6 (1925): 316.
Hadeln, Detlev von. “Dogenbildnisse von Tizian.” Pantheon 6 (1930): 490, 494.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: A List of the Principal Artists and their Works with an Index of Places. Oxford, 1932: 576.
Suida, Wilhelm. Tizian. Zürich and Leipzig, 1933: 81, 157.
Dussler, Luitpold. “Tizian-Ausstellung in Venedig.” Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 4 (1935): 239.
Mostra di Tiziano. Exh. cat. Palazzo Pesaro Papafava, Venice, 1935: 81.
Norris, Christopher. “Titian: Notes on the Venice Exhibition.” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 67 (August 1935): 127-128.
Berenson, Bernard. Pitture italiane del rinascimento: catalogo dei principali artisti e delle loro opere con un indice dei luoghi. Translated by Emilio Cecchi. Milan, 1936: 496.
Tietze, Hans. Tizian: Leben und Werk. 2 vols. Vienna, 1936: 1:133, 167-8, 303, 315.
Wilczek, Karl. Katalog der Graf Czernin'schen Gemäldegalerie in Wien. Vienna, 1936: 88-89.
Mayer, August L. “A propos d’un nouveau livre sur le Titien.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 18 (December 1937): 308.
Tietze, Hans. Titian: Paintings and Drawings. Vienna, 1937: 347.
Da Mosto, Andrea. I Dogi di Venezia. Venice, 1939: 302.
Stepanow, Giovanni. Tizian. Leipzig, 1941: xviii, xlvi.
Riggs, Arthur Stanley. Titian the Magnificent and the Venice of His Day. New York, 1946: 160, 209.
Tietze-Conrat, Erica. “Titian’s Workshop in His Late Years.” The Art Bulletin 28 (1946): 81 n. 44.
Europäische Barockmalerei aus Wiener Privatgalerien. Exh. cat. Kunstmuseum, Bern, 1947: 14 no. 47.
Tietze, Hans. Titian. The Paintings and Drawings. London, 1950: 399.
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Tiziano. Lezioni di storia dell’arte. 2 vols. Bologna, 1953-1954: 1:165, 203-205.
Dell’Acqua, Gian Alberto. Tiziano. Milan, 1955: 120.
Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 178-181, no. 71, repro.
Walker, John. "The Nation's Newest Old Masters." The National Geographic Magazine 110, no. 5 (November 1956): 622, 624, color repro. 639.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Venetian School. 2 vols. London, 1957: 1:189.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 73.
Morassi, Antonio. “Titian.” In Encyclopedia of World Art. 17+ vols. London, 1959+,
14(1967): col. 143.
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 192, repro.
The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 26.
Valcanover, Francesco. Tutta la pittura di Tiziano. 2 vols. Milan, 1960: 1:72.
Walker, John, Guy Emerson, and Charles Seymour. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961:, 120-121, repro. pl. 114, 116
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 34, color repro.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 146, repro.
Morassi, Antonio. Titian. Greenwich, CT, 1964: 39.
Nuttall, W. L. F. “King Charles I’s Pictures and the Commonwealth Sale.” Apollo 82, no. 44 (1965): 308.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 130
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:174, color repro.
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 116, repro.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV-XVI Century. London, 1968: 179-180, fig. 424-425.
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Tiziano. 2 vols. Florence, 1969: 1:103-104.
Valcanover, Francesco. L’opera completa di Tiziano. Milan, 1969: 112.
Wethey, Harold. The Paintings of Titian. 3 vols. London, 1969-1975: 2(1971):23-24, 108-109; 3(1975): 160, 248.
Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972: 203, 514, 647.
Lane, Frederic. Venice: A Maritime Republic. Baltimore, 1973: 207-208.
Zeri, Federico, and Elizabeth Gardner. Italian Paitnings. A Catalogue of the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Venetian School. New York, 1973: 76-77.
Rossi, Paola. Jacopo Tintoretto: I ritratti. Venice, 1974: 48.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 346, repro.
Gallego, Julian. “El retrato en Tiziano.” Goya 135 (1976): 170-171.
Chastel, André. “Titien.” In Tiziano nel Quarto Centenario della sua Morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 21.
Muraro, Michelangelo. “Tiziano pittore ufficiale della Serenissima.” In Tiziano nel quarto centenario della sua morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 98.
Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Profilo di Tiziano. Florence, 1977: 39.
Perocco, Guido. “Tiziano e alcuni committenti a Venezia.” In Tiziano nel quarto centenario della sua morte, 1576-1976. Venice, 1977: 70-71.
Perocco, Guido. “Tiziano e il mondo politico e sociale di Venezia.” In Tiziano Vecellio. Convegno indetto nel IV centenario dell’artista (1976). Rome, 1977: 51-52.
Finlay, Robert. “Politics and the Family in Renaissance Venice: the Election of Doge Andrea Gritti.” Studi Veneziani N.S. 2 (1978): 106.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1979: I:488-490, II:pl. 346, 346A,B
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 39, pl. 23.
Fasolo, Ugo. Titian. Florence, 1980: 41-42.
Gilbert, Creighton. “Some Findings on Early Works of Titian.” The Art Bulletin 62 (1980): 75.
Meller, Peter. “Il lessico ritrattistico di Tiziano.” In Tiziano e Venezia: Convegno internazionale di studi (1976). Vicenza, 1980: 328-329.
Hale, J. R. “Andrea Gritti.” In A Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian
. Edited by J. R. Hale. New York, 1981: 164.
Alsop, Joseph. The Rare Art Traditions: The History of Art Collecting and Its Linked Phenomena Wherever These Have Appeared. Bollingen series 35, no. 27. New York, 1982: 460-461.
Shearman, John. The Early Italian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen. Cambridge, 1983: 263.
Puppi, Lionello. “Iconografia di Andrea Gritti.” In “Renovatio Urbis”: Venezia nell’età di Andrea Gritti, 1523-1538. Edited by Manfredo Tafuri. Rome, 1984: 218-220.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 204, no. 246, color repro.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 398, repro.
Puppi, Lionello. “La consegna dell’anello al Doge. Anatomia di un dipinto.” In Paris Bordon e il suo tempo: Atti del convegno internazionale di studi (1985). Treviso, 1987: 102-103.
Haskell, Francis. “Charles I’s Collection of Pictures.” In The Late King’s Goods. Collections, Possessions and Patronage of Charles I in the Light of the Commonwealth Sale Inventories. Edited by Arthur MacGregor. London and Oxford, 1989: 204.
Titian, Prince of Painters. Exh. cat. Palazzo Ducale, Venice; National Gallery of Art, Washington. Venice, 1990: 252-254.
Ost, Hans. Tizian-Studien. Cologne, 1992: 88-96.
Echols, Robert. "Titian's Venetian Soffitti: Sources and Transformations." Studies in the History of Art 45 (1993):20.
Weber, Annette. Venezianische Dogenporträts des 16. Jahrhunderts. Sigmaringen, 1993: 62-67.
Burke, Peter. “Il ritratto veneziano del Cinquecento”. In Pittura nel Veneto. Il Cinquecento. Edited by Mauro Lucco. 3 vols. Milan, 1996-1999: 3(1999):1103.
Howard, Deborah. “Andrea Gritti.” In The Dictionary of Art. Edited by Jane Turner. 34 vols. New York and London, 1996: 13:678.
Puppi, Lionello. “Dal mito allo stato. Nota sull’illustrazione pittorica di una tarda integrazione dell’agiografia marciana.” In Venezia da Stato a Mito. Exh. cat. Fondazione Giorgio Cini. Venice, 1997: 68.
Kaminsky, Marion. Titian. Cologne, 1998: 90.
Martin, Thomas. Alessandro Vittoria and the Portrait Bust in Renaissance Venice. Oxford, 1998: 79.
Cole, Bruce. Titian and Venetian Painting, 1450-1590. Boulder, 1999: 133-136.
Valcanover, Francesco. Tiziano: I suoi pennelli sempre partorirono espressioni di vita. Florence, 1999: 43, 267.
Finlay, Robert. “Fabius Maximus in Venice: Doge Andrea Gritti, the War of Cambrai, and the Rise of Habsburg Hegemony, 1509-1530.” Renaissance Quarterly 53 (2000): 988.
Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing Through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies. Materials and Meaning in the Fine Arts 1. New Haven, 2000: 121-122, 262, fig. 112, color fig. 113.
Pedrocco, Filippo. Titian: The Complete Paintings. New York, 2001: 50, 189.
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 104-105, no. 79, color repro.
Humfrey, Peter, et al. The Age of Titian: Venetian Renaissance Art from Scottish Collections. Edited by Aidan Weston-Lewis. Exh. cat. Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, 2004: 128-129.
Ferino-Pagden, Sylvia, ed. Der späte Tizian und die Sinnlichkeit der Malerei. Exh. cat. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna; Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice. Vienna, 2007: no. I.7, 179-182, 182-183 (not in the exhibition).
Humfrey, Peter. Titian: The Complete Paintings. Ghent and New York, 2007: 210.
Penny, Nicholas. National Gallery Catalogues: The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Vol. 2: Venice 1540-1600. London, 2008: 211.
Cranston, Jodi. The Muddied Mirror: Materiality and Figuration in Titian’s Later Paintings. University Park, PA, 2010: 93-95.
Overdick, Michael. Tizian: Die späten Porträts 1545-1568. Düsseldorf, 2010: 5-10, 59-61.
Biferali, Frabrizio. Tiziano: Il genio e il potere. Rome, 2011: 86-87.
Gentili, Augusto. Tiziano. Milan, 2012: 311, 313.
Dunkerton, Jill, Jennifer Fletcher, and Paul Joannides. “A Portrait of Girolamo
Fracastoro by Titian in the National Gallery.” The Burlington Magazine 155 (2013): 15 n. 74.
Nichols, Tom. Titian and the End of the Venetian Renaissance. London, 2013: 112-115.

Andrea Gritti (1455 – December 1538) was the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538, following a distinguished diplomatic and military career.

Gritti was born in Bardolino, near Verona. He spent much of his early life in Constantinople (Istanbul) as a grain merchant, looking after Venetian interests. In the late 1490s he was using his commercial correspondence for sending encoded information to Venice regarding the movements of the Turkish navy.[2] In 1499, he was imprisoned on charges of espionage, but escaped execution due to his friendship with the vizier, and was released several years later.

In the early sixteenth century, Venice lost nearly all its territory on the Italian mainland, and Gritti played an important part in the events connected with this loss and the eventual return to the status quo ante. In 1509, after the Venetian defeat at the Battle of Agnadello, Gritti was appointed as proveditor to the Venetian army in Treviso; ordered by the Council of Ten to support revolts against the invaders, he successfully engineered the return of Padua to Venetian hands, and its subsequent defence against the Emperor. In 1510, following the death of Niccolò di Pitigliano, Gritti took command of Venice's army, but was forced to withdraw to Venice by French advances. He continued as proveditor through end of the League of Cambrai and the subsequent war of the Holy League. In 1512, he led the negotiations with Francis I that resulted in Venice leaving the League and allying with France.

Elected Doge in 1523, Gritti concluded a treaty with Charles V, ending Venice's active involvement in the Italian Wars. He attempted to maintain the neutrality of the Republic in the face of the continued struggle between Charles and Francis, urging both to turn their attention to the advances of the Ottoman Empire in Hungary. However, he could not prevent Suleiman I from attackingCorfu in 1537, drawing Venice into a new war with the Ottomans. His dogaressa was Benedetta Vendramin.[3]

Gritti died in December 1538.

Popular culture[edit]

  • Andrea Gritti sometimes appears in the loading screen of the computer strategy game, Europa Universalis IV.


  • Finlay, Robert, "Fabius Maximus in Venice: Doge Andrea Gritti, the War of Cambrai, and the Rise of Habsburg Hegemony, 1509-1530," Renaissance Quarterly 53:988–1031, Winter 2000.
  • Norwich, John Julius (1989). A History of Venice. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-72197-5.

External links[edit]

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