Legal, Public and Unpublished Materials
This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.
Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-01-17 02:30:57
General Guidelines for Public and Unpublished Materials
Notes and bibliographic entries for public documents, like other documents, should include the elements needed to locate the items. These essential elements often include the following:
- Country, city, state, county
- Legislative body, executive department, court, bureau, board commission or committee
- Subsidiary divisions
- Title, if any, of the document or collection
- Individual author (editor or compiler), if given
- Report number or any other identification necessary or useful in finding the specific document
- Publisher, if different from issuing body
1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Document” (source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication), page number(s).
Corresponding Bibliographic Entry (B):
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Document.” Source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication.
Legal Materials and Government Documents
Legal materials and other government documents should be cited using footnotes, endnotes, and/or citation sentences (with clauses including the same information required in a footnote). They are not required to be cited in a bibliography or on a references page. In Author-Date style, citation sentences alone are an acceptable form of citation. (For more information, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sections 14.269-305 and 15.58.)
In the case of legal documents, print copies of the sources are preferred to digital, though verified digital sources are acceptable.
Court Decisions and Cases
Notes for court cases should include case name, number, volume number, abbreviated name(s) of reporter, and, in parenthese, the abbreviated name of the court and the date. Case names written in full are typeset in Roman, while in subsequent shortened citations the short form of the case name is italicized. Citations are assumed to refer to decisions as a whole unless a particular page is cited using “at” (see example 3 below). The CMOS offers the following note examples in section 14.276:
United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).
Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988).
Christmas, 222 F.3d at 145. The court also noted that under United States v. Sokolow, 490 U.S. 1, 7 (1989), police may briefly detain a person without probable cause if the officer believes criminal activity “may be afoot.” Christmas, 222 F.3d at 143; see also Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1 (1968).
Theses and Dissertations
Thesis and dissertation titles appear in quotation marks, not in italics, but are cited in all other ways like books. Include name, title, type of document, academic institution, and date, in that order. If the item was found online, include a URL or DOI (see guidelines for citing online sources).
Footnote or Endnote (N):
1. Tara Hostetler, “Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘typhoid Mary’” (master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007), 15-16.
Corresponding Bibliographic Entry (B):
Hostetler, Tara. "Bodies at War: Bacteriology and the Carrier Narratives of ‘Typhoid Mary.’” Master’s thesis, Florida State University, 2007.
Letters and Unpublished Manuscripts
Letters and unpublished materials that have not been archived may be cited like other unpublished material, with information on location replaced by wording such as “private collection of Trinity Overmyer” or “in the author’s possession.” The location is not mentioned.
This guide is a general overview of how to cite common types of sources using the two versions of Chicago style for student writing.
The Chicago Manual of Style consists of two basic documentation styles:
Notes-Bibliography (NB)is common in art history, theology, history, and other humanities disciplines
NB format uses footnotes and endnotes with a bibliography at the end of the document to record sources
Author-Date (AD) is sometimes used in the social sciences
In the Author-Date system, sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication and expanded upon in a list of references at the end of the document, where full bibliographic information is provided.
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